Early modern military manuals were one of the main intellectual media through which theorists and soldiers envisioned and articulated the interrelations of war, society, and culture.Although art of war literature has often been approached from the perspective of military history, the present study investigates the relationship of martial literature with Renaissance culture.Focusing on four Spanish military manuals published in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, this study examines how soldier-authors deployed the classical tradition.It argues that soldier-authors’ references to the
Christopher St.German has come to be recognized as one of the more creative thinkers associated with the English Reformation.This essay highlights the manner in which St.German’s creativity is reflected in his polemical use of Islam in controversy with Thomas More.Contemporary Catholic and Protestant polemicists, including More, typically used Islam to emphasize the differences between them, especially by highlighting similarities between Muslims and one’s opponents.St.German, by contrast, used Muslim errors to downplay the division in the English church, supporting his efforts to mitigate
The reception of the Protestant message has always presented particular historical problems.This article addresses the question of how the message about images was received and acted upon by individuals in their homes.By examining inventories after death of known Protestants in sixteenth-century Amiens, we can conclude that they both heard the message and acted upon it, even under very difficult conditions for Protestants in an increasingly unfriendly and sometimes dangerous local environment.
This article examines how, in both early modern Spain and England, antitheatrical polemicists responded to the increased popularity and visibility of playhouses by attacking them as pernicious, diabolical, and effeminizing.Antitheatrical tracts and sermons drew upon the authority of ancients and propagated understandings of the body politic as an organism that could be diagnosed with a corrupting and womanish disease.These arguments resonated during moments of political and social crisis.A historical analysis, however, demonstrates the different trajectories and impacts of antitheatrical wr
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The Tudor sovereigns’ attempts to restore central authority in Ireland were beleaguered by endemic war and the reality of a realm politically and culturally divided. These problems drew the attention of social and religious reformers whose aims were to perfect a civil and godly commonwealth. The major intellectual movements of the sixteenth century provided the English with justifications for eradicating independent power, prohibiting Irish language and culture, confiscating Irish land, and introducing English settlers with mandates to build, plant, and reorganize the landscape.
Since its 1559 foundation in Madrid, the royal convent of the Descalzas Reales was a vital extension of the court, serving as a retreat for the women of the royal family, the royal children, and the king himself. Founded by Juana de Austria, sister of Philip II, the convent was later home to another of Philip’s sisters, Empress María of Austria, who brought numerous features of the court to the convent, including a large entourage.
Between 1559 and 1589, Catherine de Médicis developed an acute understanding of the role of the arts in expressing power and political influence. This article argues that the celebrations organized for the meeting of the French and Spanish courts at Bayonne in 1565 demonstrate Catherine’s keen understanding of the power of visual culture, and skill at manipulating images in the service of diplomacy.