An irony of Thomas Wolsey’s fall and, soon thereafter, of Thomas More’s resignation of the chancellorship is that, in using the office of chancellor to advance and defend the interests of Catholic orthodoxy, first Wolsey and then More was defeated by the contradictory demands of a king who aspired to be a faithful son of the church yet imperial in his own realm. Wolsey was ruined in the futile endeavor of obtaining the annulment that the king desired under constraints imposed by the papacy’s rights and privileges inside England.
Humanist scholar and pedagogue Justus Lipsius (1547–1606) cherished the overly ambitious project to compose a true Fax historica, a comprehensive synthesis of Roman, Greek, Jewish, Egyptian, Persian, Macedonian, and Spanish history, together with their institutions and customs. In the Italian antiquarian tradition, Lipsius collected appropriate illustrations for his thematic commentaries on the writings of ancient historiographers and illustrated them with special care.
Some early Lutheran funerals for rulers and reformers included Latin funeral orations as part of the religious funeral ceremonies. This provided the impetus for the second generation of Lutheran pastors to include biographical information, in the rhetorical pattern of the oration, as part of their funeral sermons. The funeral sermons of the Magdeburg cathedral pastor Siegfried Saccus (1527–96) provide a clear example of the varied homiletic possibilities in this newly emerging tradition.
Basing itself on an early-seventeenth-century case of conflict between a pastor and his Calvinist consistory in the Walloon church of Amsterdam, this article examines the issue of pastoral vocation in Calvinist and Reformed churches from the first decades of the Reformation onwards. While churches in the early years tried a variety of expedients in order to locate pastors for the expanding number of congregations, there were clear divergences over appropriate selection procedures. Increasingly, Reformed churches used formal examinations and assessments to determine fitness for ministry.
This article explores links between the anti-Marprelate polemics and Thomas Nashe’s satire of Puritans and Catholics in The Unfortunate Traveller. In public confrontations with the late Elizabethan church, activist minority religions were co-opting powerful rhetorics of holiness. Analysis is made of episodes in The Unfortunate Traveller where Nashe deconstructs Puritan and Catholic appropriations of the rhetoric of martyrdom and seeks to educate the reader in interpreting or seeing through what he believes are pretended forms of holiness.
Members of the ruling family of the twin principalities of Schwarzburg in seventeenth-century Germany took a variety of actions to professionalize midwifery and to improve the situation for birthing women and their infants. At least four different countesses of Schwarzburg were involved in helping birthing women by participating in the selection of midwives, manufacturing and distributing pharmaceutical products, and sponsoring the publication of medical and devotional manuals for the use of midwives and the women they served.