This article seeks to contribute to the scholarly literature on confessionalization by showing how private confession served as an important marker of official confessional identity in the German Reformation. The discussion focuses on Nördlingen, a Swabian imperial city that has received very little attention from English-speaking Reformation scholars. The article begins with a discussion of the efforts of Kaspar Loner, the city’s senior pastor, to implement private confession in Nördlingen, part of his larger effort to “Lutheranize” the imperial city.
While Venetians were not the discoverers or explorers of the New World, Venice was the capital of early modern print culture and transmitted knowledge about the explorations to Europe. A close look at the work of a series of Venetian armchair travelers—editors, mapmakers, and designers of costume books—reveals the profound anxieties these authors expressed about Venice’s changing status in early modern Europe.
This article discusses the relationship between enclosure and female education for Ursuline religious women in seventeenth-century Parma and Piacenza. These women, under the protection and jurisdiction of the Farnese court, did not submit to the strict religious enclosure that confined most early modern religious women. Instead, they negotiated a particular form of cloister that permitted them to leave heir home to attend church services. This enclosure offered the Ursulines and the girls in their car both the benefits and potential dangers of increased visibility.
This article examines the medical literature of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries concerning the sexual transmutation of females into males. One explanation for the phenomenon, the so-called one-sex model attributed to Aristotle, does not figure prominently in the writings of the early physicians after 1575. That such a transformation was even possible was entirely discounted by 1600.
The last work of English humanist Henry Parker, Lord Morley, “An Account of Miracles Performed by the Holy Eucharist,” contained valuable advice for the realm’s first ruling queen, Mary Tudor. Cognizant of the special challenges facing a female ruler, Morley delineated guidelines enabling the new queen to combine an active public life with traditional pious devotions to which Mary was committed. He drew examples from recent and distant English history, citing the regimens of Mary’s own great-grandmother Lady Margaret Beaufort and of twelfth-century queen Edith Maude.
Religious and civic authorities in Reformation Geneva considered the raising and educating of children within the Reformed community to be vital to the survival of their newly independent church and city. Jean Calvin, his colleagues, and the city magistrates viewed the care and nurture of the city’s children as a God-given responsibility of both fathers and mothers. Some parents, in turn, looked both to the city and to their own extended kinship networks, including Catholic relatives, to help them care for their offspring.