This article analyzes how Tridentine reform was introduced to rural and township parishes of the Cracow diocese in the initial stage of the reform’s implementation. The work focuses on those areas where the Reformation was at its most advanced. Calvinism and to a small extent Antitrinitarianism became popular mostly with the nobility and the gentry, but seldom did they gain followers in other social strata of the day. Several themes are important in what follows. The Catholic church fought with isolated heterodoxy mostly by taking back the parish churches the Protestants had appropriated.
This article considers antipuritans in Elizabethan and early Stuart England as they were portrayed in didactic texts, especially dialogues, and as they appear in court records. When godly Protestants were dubbed “puritan,” they responded with the antipuritan, a caricature of their critics as dull-witted despisers of religion who excused their indifference by calling the zealous “puritans.” The article then asks whether antipuritans were only a useful polemical fiction, and finds real antipuritans in the records of diocesan courts, visitations, and the Star Chamber.
The congrégations in Geneva, held on Fridays, were instituted for the ongoing training of the ministers of the word and for the preservation of unity in doctrine. The sources reveal also that lay members of the church were present on a regular basis in the biblical study meetings. This essay is intended to identify as many individual lay participants as possible and to evaluate their social and economic status in the city as well as their relation to the leading ministers. The sources disclose that some artisans attended the biblical study group.
Michelangelo signed only one work with his name, the Pietà in Saint Peter’s Basilica. As his first public commission in Rome, the sculpture gave the young artist an opportunity to establish his reputation and public image. The band across the Virgin’s chest serves no other function than to hold Michelangelo’s signature, which was not added as an afterthought as Vasari claimed in his 1568 biography of the artist. Although Michelangelo had carefully planned his inscription, its style of execution suggests letters that are spontaneously written, not carved.
The historiography of early modern Netherlands is notably silent about one of the major figures involved in the Catholic Reformation in the region: Andrés de Soto,
The Scot Thomas Dempster (ca.1574–1625) was an idiosyncratic classical scholar whose brief appointment as royal historian to James I has previously been overlooked.
John Day is perhaps best known as the printer of John Foxe’s Actes and Monuments, usually referred to as Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. Other lucrative Elizabethan patents held by John Day, such as those for the Metrical Psalms, the ABC, and the Catechism, ensured considerable financial return and a revered, if not envied, status among Elizabethan printers. Only the Queen’s Printer, Christopher Barker, could compare with Day’s volume of output; each man printed in excess of 350 works. Scholarship has primarily focused upon Day’s Edwardian and Elizabethan activities.
This article examines a document in the Spanish National Archive at Simancas, which entails a list of urban reform projects for Madrid in its early years as both court and de facto capital of the Spanish Habsburg monarchy. Herein, the document is dated to 1565 and attributed to Francisco de Sotomayor, a corregidor, or royal governor of the city appointed by Philip II. Sotomayor’s report on urban reforms was informed by years of service in Madrid both in government and in the royal works.
Around the mid-sixteenth century Humanist prelates were conflicted in their efforts to combine the conventions of their cultural heritage and the new religious requirements.
In sixteenth-century France many Protestant women took an active role in the defense of their religious convictions. The French Protestant martyrologist Jean Crespin recounted the stories of numerous women who became martyrs for this cause. A problem arose, however, as female martyrs abandoned home and family, thus challenging the gendered social order. As the martyrologies had a didactic function, images of exemplary women needed to be constructed so as not to threaten prescribed gender roles but also not undermine the power of the martyr.