Honor in early modern Castile has been seen as a code that determined social behavior, notably by defining women’s identities in terms of sexuality and by limiting their behavior. Examining criminal cases that feature nonelite women from Yébenes, a small town near Toledo in Castile, shows that in practice honor was a rhetoric that women used to make their way through the social relations of their communities as they asserted themselves and protected their interests.
Printed English-language battlefield news reports between 1570 and 1637 conveyed to English newsreaders a genre-distinctive discourse of war, whose emphasis on the precise means of battlefield providence conveyed a degree of experimental providentialism considerably beyond the norms of England’s consensually providential culture. This article examines closely the relationship of the news genre to its usage of providence and fortune, and shows how and why providence emerged as its favored explanatory concept.
John Foxe’s Actes and Monuments is a formative text of English Protestantism, the martyrs described within it generally thought to have been intended to serve as prototype English Protestants. However, Foxe’s female martyrs, by defying their husbands, frequently subvert expectations for female virtue, which did not go unnoticed by Catholic polemicists. While failing explicitly to defend his female martyrs’ virtue, Foxe did not intend to advocate female disorder.
Expectations of justice in a Tuscan fief were not much different from those of today, because they were deeply rooted in universal emotions governing exchange and reciprocity. Where villagers had easy access to a magistrate (both civil and criminal), they availed themselves of the tribunal whose mechanisms they understood and accepted. The relative efficiency of the feudal tribunal encouraged villagers to go back to it, at least to settle those grievances that elicited in them the most outrage.
This study examines the role of trust in Genoese merchant enterprises in the sixteenth century. While great merchants and international financiers could rely on the state and its bank, smaller traders were left to their own devices. With no durable centralized state institutions to regulate and bolster long-distance trade, Genoese merchants relied on informal networks consisting of a combination of close associates and transient partners.
Of the several faces identified as self-portraits in Michelangelo’s Last Judgment, only the one on the skin held by St. Bartholomew has been widely accepted as such. This essay does not dispute that identification, but does argue against the interpretation of it as a representation of the artist’s psychological torment. Other self-references within the fresco, including one made visible only after the recent cleaning, suggest a different interpretation: one that focuses on the resurrection of the physical body, set within the context of contemporary debates about the self.
Studies of the political impact of tithe collection in medieval and early modern Europe have tended to consider the phenomenon as secular taxation of church property. This article examines how, in the parts of the archdiocese of Lyon subject to the sovereign house of Savoy (Bresse, Bugey, and Valromey), the regional clergy assembly itself was responsible for tithe assessment and collection. Because of its control of this process, the Bresse clergy assembly was able to play a significant role in a regional political configuration that included a variety of actors, both clerical and secular.
The poetry of Madeleine Des Roches (ca. 1520–87) exhibits a concern with literary community. In Ode 3, from the 1578/79 OEuvres, she draws on a rich tradition of writings about women and postulates a new community for women writers. The interest in community extends to her sources, which were written by members of important literary groups or which create fictional communities. Des Roches distinguishes herself from predecessors who include Louise Labé, Giovanni Boccaccio, and the Pléiade poets.
Far from being a naively provincial document in the history of art treatises, Henry Peacham’s The Art of Drawing (1606) deserves credit for introducing English readers to continental art theory and pedagogy. His groundbreaking handbook borrows an incremental teaching method from Serlio, an art-theoretical superstructure from Lomazzo, and an imitative drawing program from Fialetti, and conflates these into a practical guide aimed at English readers.
The terms of religious coexistence established by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 posed many challenges as French Catholics and Protestants struggled to bridge the gap between the edict’s provisions and their everyday lives. This article focuses on two pastoral visitations conducted in the dioceses of Vaison and Aix-en-Provence in the wake of the edict’s promulgation. Not only were they among the first dioceses to introduce Catholic reform in France; they were also home to biconfessional communities.