This article explores links between the anti-Marprelate polemics and Thomas Nashe’s satire of Puritans and Catholics in The Unfortunate Traveller. In public confrontations with the late Elizabethan church, activist minority religions were co-opting powerful rhetorics of holiness. Analysis is made of episodes in The Unfortunate Traveller where Nashe deconstructs Puritan and Catholic appropriations of the rhetoric of martyrdom and seeks to educate the reader in interpreting or seeing through what he believes are pretended forms of holiness.
Members of the ruling family of the twin principalities of Schwarzburg in seventeenth-century Germany took a variety of actions to professionalize midwifery and to improve the situation for birthing women and their infants. At least four different countesses of Schwarzburg were involved in helping birthing women by participating in the selection of midwives, manufacturing and distributing pharmaceutical products, and sponsoring the publication of medical and devotional manuals for the use of midwives and the women they served.
This article seeks to contribute to the scholarly literature on confessionalization by showing how private confession served as an important marker of official confessional identity in the German Reformation. The discussion focuses on Nördlingen, a Swabian imperial city that has received very little attention from English-speaking Reformation scholars. The article begins with a discussion of the efforts of Kaspar Loner, the city’s senior pastor, to implement private confession in Nördlingen, part of his larger effort to “Lutheranize” the imperial city.
While Venetians were not the discoverers or explorers of the New World, Venice was the capital of early modern print culture and transmitted knowledge about the explorations to Europe. A close look at the work of a series of Venetian armchair travelers—editors, mapmakers, and designers of costume books—reveals the profound anxieties these authors expressed about Venice’s changing status in early modern Europe.
This article discusses the relationship between enclosure and female education for Ursuline religious women in seventeenth-century Parma and Piacenza. These women, under the protection and jurisdiction of the Farnese court, did not submit to the strict religious enclosure that confined most early modern religious women. Instead, they negotiated a particular form of cloister that permitted them to leave heir home to attend church services. This enclosure offered the Ursulines and the girls in their car both the benefits and potential dangers of increased visibility.
This article examines the medical literature of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries concerning the sexual transmutation of females into males. One explanation for the phenomenon, the so-called one-sex model attributed to Aristotle, does not figure prominently in the writings of the early physicians after 1575. That such a transformation was even possible was entirely discounted by 1600.