Historians have long recognized the prominent role women played in vending food and fuel on the streets of early modern towns, but huckstering was a profitable part-time trade that attracted men as well as women. Indeed, there were probably more male than female hucksters operating in Southampton and other towns.
The early age of orthodoxy in German Lutheranism was a crucial period of transi-tion and solidification between the conciliatory Formula of Concord in 1577 and the work of early seventeenth-century dogmaticians such as Johann Gerhard (1582– 1637). During this “confessional age” Lutheran theologians struggled to protect the “pure teachings of Luther” while consolidating religious reforms and engaging in polemical battles with Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Anabaptists, and Jews.
Banishment was vital to the efforts of the town council in the south German imperial city of Ulm to punish and control vagrants during the sixteenth century. While the efforts of Ulm’s authorities to expel impoverished outsiders often faltered in the face of the determined recidivism offered by these seemingly powerless offenders, the local magistrates never despaired of banishing the alien poor.
An autograph sermon by Peter Martyr Vermigli with Matthew Parker’s annotation “Sermo Petri Martir manu propria scripta in seditionem Devonensium” is included among the Reformation manuscripts in the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Preached at St. Paul’s (although not by Vermigli himself), the sermon constitutes a ’response to the popular uprising in Devon and other parts of the realm precipitated by the promulgation of the first Edwardine Act of Uniformity of 1549 with its prescription of the new vernacular liturgy of the Book of Common Prayer.
The main sources of this article are 750 matrimonial trials discussed before the ecclesiastical court in Venice (1420–1545). This article analyzes the differing conceptions of marriage held by the laity and by the ecclesiastical hierarchy as these ideas were expressed in a dialectical relationship in court. Central to this analysis is the concept of consent, since consent, with widely differing interpretations, formed the founda- tion and the essence of both canonical and lay customary marriage.
The Bolognese Monte del matrimonio addressed the difficult problem of giving girls with moderate means a chance to marry, thus saving the honor of their families, not merely by charitable benevolence but by active planning. Mixing credit and piety, the Monte was designed in an innovative fashion and differed substantially from other similar institutions. Unlike the many dowry funds which dispensed bequests, it was tailored to give the respectable poor an opportunity to invest at interest their own savings.
Recent studies of women and power in France during the sixteenth century have demonstrated that noblewomen wielded considerable political influence through patron-client relationships and through the management of their households, especially during the Wars of Religion. This article will examine the extent of noblewomen's influence and power during the religious wars by focusing on the activities of widows connected to the Selve family of Limousin.
This case study investigates the choices made by a newly ennobled French Protestant and his family. During the French Wars of Religion, Marc-Antoine Marreau de Boisguerin advanced his social ambitions and acquired noble title through military service to the crown. As the crown became more Catholic, Boisguerin experienced greater difficulty remaining Protestant. After a period of defying the royal will, Boisguerin acquiesced and crossed confessional lines, but he never became a Catholic militant.
Although the primary burden of suppressing the 1525 German peasants’ revolt was assumed by the Swabian League, many individual princes raised military forces and mounted campaigns on their own against the rebels, with varying degrees of success. For those princes who did so, the rebellion offered opportunities to assert their authority over disputed areas and jurisdictions at the expense of rulers, primarily ecclesiastical princes and prelates, who had no such forces available due to financial difficulties and the speed with which the revolt had spread.
Autobiography, a genre seemingly one-dimensional and privileged concerning personal historical truth—though always viewed to some degree as selective—becomes plural and unstable when placed under close scrutiny and contextualized within the political stress of the historical moment of writing and the writer’s personal pragmatic motives generated by the creation of the text. On 23 August 1550, George Buchanan, after having been held captive and interrogated for over a year by the Portuguese Inquisition, placed before the inquisitors his confession and defense.