Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester 1531-55, is familiar as "Wily Winchester," the villain of Foxe's Actes and Monuments. Foxe, however, was building on a long evangelical tradition which cast Gardiner as Antichrist's chief agent in England. This reputation was grounded less on Gardiner's own conduct than on the reformers' need for a scapegoat to explain the failure of their early hopes and to exonerate Henry VIII.
This article demonstrates how Cranach the Elder's Schneeberg Altarpiece of 1539, the first evangelical retable, instructs viewers in Lutheran theology and actively perpetuates evangelical public devotional practice. The strategies of the retable s iconography, which derive from Luther's sermons and other writings, explicate Luther's notion of justification by grace through faith. This model of salvation creates a new foundation for the pictorial interpretation of traditional subjects.
Thomas Lodge is atypical among early modern English writers concerned with Jewish religious and historical texts. Whereas it was common for English theologians to use Jewish scholarship in support of their Protestant arguments, Lodge's 1602 translation ofThe Famous and Memorable Workes ofjosephus offers English readers the works of Josephus as a defense of Catholic understandings of Christian history and theology.
Fifteenth-century Italian humanists constructed elaborate genealogies of brides and grooms in Latin wedding orations. These family histories not only demonstrate the creative ways in which humanists praised elites by referring to classical and mythic pasts, but also the surprising extent to which humanists integrated and emphasized pagan and barbaric origins. This article focuses on two orations.
Quoting Rom. 10:17, "Faith commeth by hearing," English reformers stressed the aural in worship and argued that noise in church disturbs not only liturgy and sermon but also the salvation of souls. Visitation articles and ecclesiastical canons regulated the sounds of lay behavior; religious polemic describes liturgical practices as "noisy" to brand them as misguided at best and devilish at worst. William Bradshaw, Peter Smart, John Field, and Thomas Wilcox use noise to condemn "popish" behavior, and Richard Hooker and George Herbert discuss how lay behavior affects hearing the word.
Through continuous and successful cooperation with a charitable foundation-the Sapienza-the commune of Pistoia provided students from diverse social backgrounds with qualitatively superior schooling in the preuniversity levels throughout the sixteenth century and beyond. As a result, Pistoia had the largest number of graduates from the Studio Pisano, the flagship of the university system in Tuscany, surpassing by far all other communes, including the metropolitan center of Florence.
Henri Estienne (also Henricus Stephanus, called le Grand) is one of the most important printers, editors, dictionary writers, philologists, and religious controversialists of the sixteenth century. This essay argues that allegations of unmanliness and sodomy against (Catholic) Italians-in short, forms of "xenohomophobia" inform not only his writings that participate in the post-Reformational controversies of his day, but they enter deeply also into his philological speculations and observations. Estienne's gendered speculations and prejudices were adapted to use in England.
What was Giordano Bruno thinking when he unleashed a flurry of hearts, moons, stars, ivy leaves, and flowers into nearly seventy-five geometric diagrams in two of his most mathematical treatises, the Articuli centum et sexaginta adversus huius tempestatis mathematicos atque philosophos and De triplici m?nimo et mensura? Not only is this kind of detailed ornamentation difficult to accomplish on a woodblock; it is most unusual for a printed work of geometry in any period of European history. The restless Bruno must have had a good reason to engage in such a labor-intensive project.
Many scholars have stressed the favor shown to the bastard sons of noblemen, particularly in the "golden age of noble bastards" in the fifteenth century This article examines the position of noble bastards in Southwest Germany, using the Zimmerische Chronik (written in the 1560s) and regional studies of counts and barons in Swabia and Franconia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
This article discusses the introduction of Tridentine reform in Tuscan convents, in particular the implementation of enclosure and the subsequent reactions of nuns. In Tuscany, Tridentine laws coexisted with disciplinary measures sponsored by the church and the state concerning the government of convents. Enclosure laws were enforced through negotiations within local communities involving both ecclesiastical and state authorities and the nuns, who expressed their discontent and sometimes refused to live under lock and key.