This article examines questions of retributive justice and conflict resolution in early modern England. In particular, it focuses on Protestant demands for anti-Catholic vengeance in the aftermath of the Marian persecution. Following the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558, some godly critics called for the execution of the Marian leadership, whom they blamed for the deaths of the Protestant martyrs.
Despite Tridentine efforts to curtail family influence and interference in convents through the enforcement of strict enclosure and regulation of their governance, families of the civic, feudal, and papal aristocracy in seventeenth century Rome maintained close ties with their relatives in the city’s female convents, institutions which played a central role in strategies of the Counter- Reformation and impacted the artistic landscape of the city.
In November 1617, Protestants across the Holy Roman Empire commemorated the one-hundredth anniversary of Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses. Traditionally, scholars have argued that a unity of message marked the first official centennial celebration in modern Western history. Equally important, however, were variations in the structure of Reformation Jubilee commemorations, which authorities used to address specific local concerns. In Strasbourg, officials responded to the spread of Tridentine reform in surrounding territories by organizing a festival centered on anti-Catholic polemics.
“Erasmus laid the egg, Luther hatched it.” Already in the early Reformation this popular quip suggested a direct, causal link between humanism and the Protestant Reformation. Yet Luther’s precise debt to Erasmus has remained an elusive problem. This article reconsiders the issue by investigating how Luther read Erasmus’s scholarship, focusing on two remarkable, little-studied examples: Erasmus’s edition of Jerome and his Annotations to the New Testament. Luther’s annotated copies reveal a deep ambivalence toward the humanist and a distinctly uncharitable reading style.
This paper suggests complexity of the perception of the body in Post-Tridentine Catholic sphere through the comparative study of reliquaries from St. Tryphon’s cathedral in Kotor. The focus will be placed on the examples created between fifteenth and seventeenth century. The change that occurred in the particular elements of the silver body-part reliquaries suggests that the image of the sacred body acquired a different appearance. Purified of precious stones, decorative ribbons, and knightly armors, it began to resemble, to a much greater degree, the body of the observer.
This study focuses on a peripheral port city, Porto, during the sixteenth and early seventeenth century, and examines its connections to the territories of the Portuguese expansion through the consumption of exotic commodities.
This paper explores the interaction between informal networks of care and ecclesiastical authorities in seventeenth-century Scotland. Previously, studies have identified poor relief and local care as a point of contention where authorities aggressively applied socioreligious reformation and created considerable local tension. This essay argues that the kirk of Scotland could not implement a single, nationwide, policy to radically alter palliative care networks as they were so variable, dependent upon local context and necessary to local life.
In his reflections on being the only Jewish-born Jesuit, Giovanni Battista Eliano (1530–89) deliberated over the nature of religious conversion. Early in his career, Eliano did not hide the difficulties and personal dilemmas that he and other converts faced. However, in the wake of increased institutional skepticism concerning conversion and the dedication of Jewish-lineage Jesuits, Eliano recast conversion from a lifelong process of belonging to an instantaneous act of becoming via baptism.