When Thomas More resigned the office of chancellor in May of 1532, he departed from the government with the understanding that he would refrain from aiding or encouraging opponents of royal policy. This pledge was honored, but when events late in 1533 propelled Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent, into prominence, More was not able to avoid the consequences of his association with her and became suspect of treason under provisions of new legislation being drafted by Thomas Cromwell.
The Adornes, a Genoese merchant family prominent in late fifteenth-century Bruges, exhibited a particularly devout attachment to the sites of the Holy Land, manifested in the Jerusalem pilgrimages of three sequential generations of Adornes men and through the construction of the extraordinary family chapel, the Jeruzalemkapel, a conceptual Jerusalem in miniature that served the family in Bruges: a domestication of the Jerusalem pilgrimage experience.
Margaret More Roper, daughter of Sir Thomas More, was well known in her own day for her facility with Latin and Greek. Although most of her writings are no longer extant, two compositions still exist: a translation of Erasmus’s Precatio dominica of 1524 and the Alington letter of 1534. Critics generally read these works as evidence of Roper’s submission to More’s patriarchal control, primarily because neither text demonstrates a literary voice distinct from the agendas of her father.
During the Flacian controversy over the definition of original sin (1560s–70s), a doctrinal debate took place that proved to be foundational for Lutheran theology: a number of the laity from the central German territory of Mansfeld wrote confessions in which they articulated their views on the matter. The mere existence of these statements from the likes of counts, city officials, artisans, and laborers raises the question of lay participation in the doctrinal controversies of the latter sixteenth century, a question rarely asked by historians.
Frederick the Wise was a leading patron of the visual arts in the early decades of the sixteenth century. This essay examines the Saxon elector’s choice of St. Bartholomew as his holy protector and promotion of the martyred saint in painting and the graphic arts as a leading intercessor for the Christian faithful. Frederick’s personal devotion to St. Bartholomew is examined as a microcosm of the apostle’s cult following on the eve of the Reformation. St.
One of Sebastian Franck’s central organizing concepts is rooted in his understanding of the term böfel, or the mob. Though not much noted in literature on Franck, his reflections on the term provide a central perspective around which he develops his distinctive vision of history and the desperate circumstances of human societies and individuals. The article lays out the structure of his social thought by investigating the development and deployment of this word within his writings.
The fierce debates about the Eucharist during the Reformation era highlight a central tension between individuals’ desire to secure confessional purity and their instinct to protect the communal nature of Christian worship. Preserving confessional coexistence required balancing these forces, often by expelling nonconformists or driving them underground. Instead, civic leaders in sixteenth-century Wesel demanded that residents of all confessions attend communion together.
This article argues for the historical significance of the career of James ap Gruffydd ap Hywel, a gentleman from south Wales who was the first lay subject of Henry VIII to go into foreign exile as an opponent of the king’s break with Rome and repudiation of Queen Catherine. It examines James ap Gruffydd’s movements around Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and continental Europe in the 1530s and 1540s, as well as his network of supporters and allies at home and overseas.