Russia’s place in the sixteenth-century European Reformation has remained largely an understudied subject in the West. Indeed, most early modern scholarship rarely crosses the Carpathians or Lake Peipus. Similarly, in Russia, scholars have not yet produced a systematic study of Ivan the Terrible’s views vis-a-vis the Reformation. This article examines Ivan the Terrible’s polemic against Protestantism within the context of the regional eastern European and larger, continental Reformation.
An attempt will be made to reconstruct Salamone Rossi’s Venetian sojourn as it relates, first, to his presumed meetings with two leading Venetian Jews—the rabbi Leon Modena and the poetess Sarra Copia Sulam—and, second, to their influence in shaping his singular collection of Hebrew works, the “Songs of Solomon,” which, ever since their publication in mid-1623, have become the cornerstone of Hebrew art music for the synagogue.
German humanism’s contribution to national consciousness in the Renaissance has generally been sought in its supposed celebration of ancient German virtues, not least of which was a steadfast opposition to Rome. However, an examination of sixteenth-century translations of classical Roman histories into German reveals the lengths to which German humanists would go to connect, rather than contrast, Germany with Rome.
Between 1549 and 1650, Jesuits gained knowledge of rising Confucianism in Japan. They came to understand Confucian filial piety in their dealings with Japanese marriage laws, and from their converts they learned more about Confucianism. In 1605 Brother Fukan Fabian published Myōtei mondō [Myōtei dialogue], which provides the Jesuit theological assessment of Japanese religions.
This article explores how traditional cultural forms could be employed to introduce Tridentine Catholicism to an Irish audience. The paper focuses on Geoffrey Keating’s Trí bior-ghaoithe an bháis (The three shafts of death) and compares his use of Gaelic poetry and the works of church fathers and classical authors as pious exempla. This is a unique didactic use of Gaelic poetry side-by-side with more traditional authorities.
El monasterio de San Jerónimo de Yuste. Francisco Javier Pizarro Gómez et al. Madrid: Patrimonio Nacional, 2006. 261 pp.
Duke Alfonso d’Este commissioned subjects from ancient texts to decorate his private suite, but a single episode from a literary source has yet to be satisfactorily argued of his first commission, Giovanni Bellini’s Feast of the Gods. A broader consideration of the sources, however, reveals that the guests in attendance at this painted fete are not a random collection of deities. Rather, their affiliations and proximity to each other appear well grounded in Macrobius’s Saturnalia and in Ovid’s Fasti, and uncover new pictorial meaning for this much-researched canvas.
This article analyzes nonsensical mock prescriptions, especially from sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century France, situating these in a context of both medical and literary history. Mock prescriptions shed light on the writing and performance of nonsense, in particular in their use of the adynaton, and on how such nonsense appealed to a mixed audience, including that of Bruscambille. They are also prominent in representations of mountebanks and thereby provide an unusual insight into their practice.
In the prince-bishopric of Bamberg during the Counter-Reformation, Protestant officials were often called upon to convert their coreligionists to Catholicism. These officials were from noble familes who had traditionally filled those offices. The prince-bishop and the canons of the cathedral chapter who appointed officials were also from these same noble families and continued during the Counter-Reformation to appoint their own Protestant relatives to office.
This article examines memories of the births of feudal heirs to consider both what witnesses remembered from their past and how they remembered it. It argues that in the early sixteenth century jurors’ memories revolved around the life-course markers of birth, marriage, and death, and were recalled in parallel with the same events in the lives of their neighbors.