Frederick the Wise was a leading patron of the visual arts in the early decades of the sixteenth century. This essay examines the Saxon elector’s choice of St. Bartholomew as his holy protector and promotion of the martyred saint in painting and the graphic arts as a leading intercessor for the Christian faithful. Frederick’s personal devotion to St. Bartholomew is examined as a microcosm of the apostle’s cult following on the eve of the Reformation. St.
One of Sebastian Franck’s central organizing concepts is rooted in his understanding of the term böfel, or the mob. Though not much noted in literature on Franck, his reflections on the term provide a central perspective around which he develops his distinctive vision of history and the desperate circumstances of human societies and individuals. The article lays out the structure of his social thought by investigating the development and deployment of this word within his writings.
The fierce debates about the Eucharist during the Reformation era highlight a central tension between individuals’ desire to secure confessional purity and their instinct to protect the communal nature of Christian worship. Preserving confessional coexistence required balancing these forces, often by expelling nonconformists or driving them underground. Instead, civic leaders in sixteenth-century Wesel demanded that residents of all confessions attend communion together.
This article argues for the historical significance of the career of James ap Gruffydd ap Hywel, a gentleman from south Wales who was the first lay subject of Henry VIII to go into foreign exile as an opponent of the king’s break with Rome and repudiation of Queen Catherine. It examines James ap Gruffydd’s movements around Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and continental Europe in the 1530s and 1540s, as well as his network of supporters and allies at home and overseas.
Historians have long recognized the prominent role women played in vending food and fuel on the streets of early modern towns, but huckstering was a profitable part-time trade that attracted men as well as women. Indeed, there were probably more male than female hucksters operating in Southampton and other towns.
The early age of orthodoxy in German Lutheranism was a crucial period of transi-tion and solidification between the conciliatory Formula of Concord in 1577 and the work of early seventeenth-century dogmaticians such as Johann Gerhard (1582– 1637). During this “confessional age” Lutheran theologians struggled to protect the “pure teachings of Luther” while consolidating religious reforms and engaging in polemical battles with Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Anabaptists, and Jews.
Banishment was vital to the efforts of the town council in the south German imperial city of Ulm to punish and control vagrants during the sixteenth century. While the efforts of Ulm’s authorities to expel impoverished outsiders often faltered in the face of the determined recidivism offered by these seemingly powerless offenders, the local magistrates never despaired of banishing the alien poor.
An autograph sermon by Peter Martyr Vermigli with Matthew Parker’s annotation “Sermo Petri Martir manu propria scripta in seditionem Devonensium” is included among the Reformation manuscripts in the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Preached at St. Paul’s (although not by Vermigli himself), the sermon constitutes a ’response to the popular uprising in Devon and other parts of the realm precipitated by the promulgation of the first Edwardine Act of Uniformity of 1549 with its prescription of the new vernacular liturgy of the Book of Common Prayer.
The main sources of this article are 750 matrimonial trials discussed before the ecclesiastical court in Venice (1420–1545). This article analyzes the differing conceptions of marriage held by the laity and by the ecclesiastical hierarchy as these ideas were expressed in a dialectical relationship in court. Central to this analysis is the concept of consent, since consent, with widely differing interpretations, formed the founda- tion and the essence of both canonical and lay customary marriage.
The Bolognese Monte del matrimonio addressed the difficult problem of giving girls with moderate means a chance to marry, thus saving the honor of their families, not merely by charitable benevolence but by active planning. Mixing credit and piety, the Monte was designed in an innovative fashion and differed substantially from other similar institutions. Unlike the many dowry funds which dispensed bequests, it was tailored to give the respectable poor an opportunity to invest at interest their own savings.