Robert Dallington’s Aphorismes Civill and Militarie (1613) presents a condensed version of Guicciardini’s Storia d’Italia, accompanied by commentary and relevant quotations from authorities. This aphorized and epitomized version of the Storia seems to present the lessons of history only as easily captured, readily imparted precepts. As a careful reader of Guicciardini and as a contemporary of Bacon, Dallington is keenly aware of the limitations of overgeneralization.
This essay will first contextualize the linguistic concerns of the French and Spanish nations as they vied for power in Europe and abroad. Then, after sketching the common linguistic concerns of the Romance languages, especially the extension of language and power, it will investigate the debates regarding the grammar and orthography of the national language that characterized France in the mid- sixteenth century.
Great polarity of opinion existed toward religious and secular authorities among English Catholics in the later sixteenth century. Anthony Copley presents a well- documented, yet hitherto understudied example of how Catholic loyalties could operate. Importantly, Copley’s loyalty, influenced by the Wars of Religion, proved cosmopolitan rather than insular. This article examines how in his life, poetry, and polemical writing during the Archpriest Controversy of the 1590s, Copley promoted a brand of loyalist politics informed by continental affairs and ideas.
The Leipzig physician Caspar Kegler created novel alchemical plague cures in the early sixteenth century that were among the first brand- name medicines developed in German- speaking lands. Although Kegler is largely unknown today, he and his descendants secured his fame by promoting his secret cures and distributing his printed pamphlets throughout German- speaking lands between 1521 and 1607. This article argues that Kegler’s work in creating and promoting novel cures represents a new sort of entrepreneurial activity among sixteenth- century physicians.
The Seven Works of Mercy by the Master of Alkmaar presents several conundrums. The archivalia concerning its commission and use no longer exist and the identity of the artist is in dispute. Further, damage done to the panels during the sixteenth century and the subsequent repairs put art historians on shaky ground when trying to interpret the series as a whole. Consequently, it is one of the most challenging, and perhaps least understood, objects in the history of northern art.
In the last years of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth, Spanish medical writers on both sides of the Atlantic engaged in an energetic series of debates on several intertwining issues, including the use of the vernacular for medical texts, the use of anatomical knowledge, the place of surgery within medicine, and the best methods for healing wounds.
This article examines obedience and authority through the lens of sixteenth-century women’s correspondence as a way of unlocking the gendered nature of deferential behavioral codes and social attitudes in early modern England.
By exploring the ways in which honor and reputation intersected with the self-fashioning of late sixteenth-century surgeons in the work of William Clowes, this study re-situates Elizabethan surgical practitioners within the credit-oriented cultural milieu of London’s guild-dominated urban landscape. As a sea surgeon, prolific author, surgeon to Queen Elizabeth I, and outspoken member of the London Barber-Surgeons’ Company, Clowes became one of his company’s most vocal spokesmen.
This essay examines the events surrounding the case of Thomas Preston, an English Benedictine who wrote in support of the Oath of Allegiance. Preston’s career has been studied mainly as an “English affair,” that is to say, as an example of the Catholic loyalist tradition as opposed to the Jesuits’ uncompromising political stances toward the English monarchy. This essay presents new evidence to make the case that Preston was the center of an important international debate.