The first Castilian Passion treatises presented meditations on the Passion of the son and the mother. In order to understand the implications of a Passion with two main characters, the method is situated in relation to its medieval European precedent of the compassionate, emotional Virgin as well as Iberian Marian devotion. In three Franciscan treatises published in Andalusia (1511–28), the authors began to forefront the physicality of Mary’s body in scenes of multiple swoons and even crucifixion.
When Thomas More resigned the office of chancellor in May of 1532, he departed from the government with the understanding that he would refrain from aiding or encouraging opponents of royal policy. This pledge was honored, but when events late in 1533 propelled Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent, into prominence, More was not able to avoid the consequences of his association with her and became suspect of treason under provisions of new legislation being drafted by Thomas Cromwell.
The Adornes, a Genoese merchant family prominent in late fifteenth-century Bruges, exhibited a particularly devout attachment to the sites of the Holy Land, manifested in the Jerusalem pilgrimages of three sequential generations of Adornes men and through the construction of the extraordinary family chapel, the Jeruzalemkapel, a conceptual Jerusalem in miniature that served the family in Bruges: a domestication of the Jerusalem pilgrimage experience.
Margaret More Roper, daughter of Sir Thomas More, was well known in her own day for her facility with Latin and Greek. Although most of her writings are no longer extant, two compositions still exist: a translation of Erasmus’s Precatio dominica of 1524 and the Alington letter of 1534. Critics generally read these works as evidence of Roper’s submission to More’s patriarchal control, primarily because neither text demonstrates a literary voice distinct from the agendas of her father.
During the Flacian controversy over the definition of original sin (1560s–70s), a doctrinal debate took place that proved to be foundational for Lutheran theology: a number of the laity from the central German territory of Mansfeld wrote confessions in which they articulated their views on the matter. The mere existence of these statements from the likes of counts, city officials, artisans, and laborers raises the question of lay participation in the doctrinal controversies of the latter sixteenth century, a question rarely asked by historians.