In early modern Protestant England, traditional Catholic worship and sacraments, particularly the Mass, declined, and many Catholics feared for their salvation. At the same time, an increased veneration of Mary Magdalene focused no longer on penance and redemption, but on Mary’s discovery of Christ’s empty tomb.
Manuscripts of late medieval and Renaissance ritual magic provide a unique insight into the gender construction of learned men. They reveal a subjective world of desire and anxiety that has for the most part been a matter of conjecture in the literature on masculinity. These manuscripts also overcome one of the limitations associated with the anxiety model: the tendency to regard masculinity as constructed in negative relation to other social groups. In part, learned masculinity was constructed according to external standards, most commonly from the world of the aristocracy.
In early modern England, the relationship between Crown and borough was not always oppositional, and could often be cooperative and flexible. Town officials could even utilize state authority for their own purposes so long as they did not ignore certain critical Crown needs.
The first Castilian Passion treatises presented meditations on the Passion of the son and the mother. In order to understand the implications of a Passion with two main characters, the method is situated in relation to its medieval European precedent of the compassionate, emotional Virgin as well as Iberian Marian devotion. In three Franciscan treatises published in Andalusia (1511–28), the authors began to forefront the physicality of Mary’s body in scenes of multiple swoons and even crucifixion.
When Thomas More resigned the office of chancellor in May of 1532, he departed from the government with the understanding that he would refrain from aiding or encouraging opponents of royal policy. This pledge was honored, but when events late in 1533 propelled Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent, into prominence, More was not able to avoid the consequences of his association with her and became suspect of treason under provisions of new legislation being drafted by Thomas Cromwell.