In the wake of the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church mandated the printing of new, uniform religious texts. This article examines the manner in which the Hieronymite monastic order in Spain responded to the council’s directive. It demonstrates that the Hieronymites, despite their own reforming activities and their extraordinarily close relationship with the Spanish monarchy, at first rejected and then rather abruptly embraced the new texts when Philip II bestowed on them the exclusive right to print, vend, and distribute the new Tridentine books across the Spanish empire.
In Renaissance Poland (1500–1650), there was a tradition of erecting funeral monuments to commemorate young children, a practice unique in Europe at that time, which raises interesting issues beyond the appearance of the monuments themselves. A large subset of these monuments illustrate a single iconographic type: the child as a sleeping putto with a skull, a motif that is particularly appropriate for the depiction of deceased infants. Although the putto and skull motif later became popular throughout Europe as a memento mori, only in Poland was it adapted to represent individual children.
Niccolò Liburnio’s Selvette, published in Venice in 1513, is an undiscussed source for the role of art as ambiguous evidence in the early cinquecento. One of the stories in Liburnio’s book is a fictional adultery trial, in which the main evidence is a painting by Giovanni Bellini. Both the prosecutor and the defense use this painting in their arguments. No such painting by Giovanni Bellini survives (nor probably ever existed), but similar works do survive from the same period.
Because of its relatively small size and population (one to two million), early modern Portugal was largely able to maintain its independence and use its political and economic clout because of the opportunities and wealth generated from its global empire. As a result, much of the history of the period in both Portuguese and other languages tends to incorporate imperial aspects.
This analysis of matrimonial ligation from northwest England both challenges the assumption that shifting theology during the Reformation created a revolution in early modern marriage and underscores the importance of regional cultural variety. Just as customary matrimonial practices survived the Reformation on the Continent, so, too, did they survive in northwest England. Matrimonial contract suits suggest that the exchange of present-tense matrimonial consent signified valid marriage, despite the church’s emphasis on a public ceremony of solemnization.
This article reexamines Léonard Limosin’s painted enamel The Triumph of the Eucharist and of the Catholic Faith (executed between 1561 and 1563) in the light of recent scholarship on the French religious wars and the social and political uses of the Eucharist. It argues that the enamel expresses the Guise family’s frustration with Catherine de’Medici’s accommodation of the Calvinists on the eve of the religious wars and exalts the family’s defense of the body politic through its defense of the faith and the Eucharist.
Splendid public celebrations projected the grandeur of rulers’ authority to the general public, which served to enhance ideas of cosmic order and transcendental hierarchy to uphold rulers’ power, particularly in times of social unrest. Spanish Naples presents an ideal case study for an investigation of a festive culture flourishing in the midst of a conflictive society. This study explores the interaction of factors which defined the viceregal court’s festive culture: Spanish foreign rule, the viceroys’ relative political fragility, and the city’s social imbalances.
In 1517 Charles promised to reform the Spanish bureaucracy, but instead of implementing appointment standards and auditing mechanisms he imposed a new tax on his clerical subjects and the nobility. Causing the comunero civil war (1520–21), Charles compromised his credit with bankers because they were not able to collect Spanish municipal contributions. In 1522, Charles restored order and his finances by supporting municipal autonomy, which included the privilege of self-taxation, and by addressing grievances regarding the reform of institutions.