This article is a discussion of the interrelations and tension between art and reform in early cinquecento Italy with a focus on Correggio’s Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine with St. Sebastian. In particular, examination is made of the ways in which Correggio’s picture relates to notions of faith and docta pietas that were central to the world of its first viewer and potential patron, Francesco Grillenzoni from Modena. Special attention is dedicated to the representation of St. Sebastian, whose sensual figure is not distinguishable from that of an alluring Cupid.
John Calvin was called a heretic, a schismatic interested only in his own power, a prophet, and a religious fanatic who made God out to be the author of sin. He has been credited (or blamed for) the rise of capitalism, democratic government, and the spread of rebellion.
This article examines the propagandistic use of 2 Thessalonians 2:3 in five New Testament Spanish translations (Enzinas, 1543; Pérez, 1556; Reina, 1569; and Valera, 1596 and 1602). The article advances the notion of the Hispanicization of the biblical text, a cultural transaction situated in a context of conflict.
Suspicion of nuns’ music during the early modern period reflected both the Tridentine preoccupation with religious celibacy and traditional distrust of female religious autonomy. Church officials prohibited certain types of liturgical and musical expression in Roman convents as well as interaction between the sisters and male musicians. The authorities were well aware of the attraction of nuns’ music, an attraction comprised not only of the skill and virtuosity of the singers, but also the allure of the forbidden.
In Women’s Speaking Justified (1666) and other pamphlets, Margaret Fell quotes the King James Version of the Bible, but inaccurately. The mistakes are variants resulting from oral transmission: Fell has memorized much of the Bible. This discovery reinforces the views that speech, manuscript, and print were complementary rather than opposing modes in early modern England and that Quaker culture was dependent on memorizing.