This article examines some of the exiled claimants to Byzantine imperial descent and to lands that had been lost to the Ottoman conquest. Rather than dismiss them as eccentrics or frauds, it argues that their titles and claims were, first, a way to gain sympathy and support from the host population while reminding them of the losses that the Christian Balkan population had suffered. Secondly, they were a way of signaling a claim to leadership among the Balkan diaspora.
This article is a discussion of the interrelations and tension between art and reform in early cinquecento Italy with a focus on Correggio’s Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine with St. Sebastian. In particular, examination is made of the ways in which Correggio’s picture relates to notions of faith and docta pietas that were central to the world of its first viewer and potential patron, Francesco Grillenzoni from Modena. Special attention is dedicated to the representation of St. Sebastian, whose sensual figure is not distinguishable from that of an alluring Cupid.
John Calvin was called a heretic, a schismatic interested only in his own power, a prophet, and a religious fanatic who made God out to be the author of sin. He has been credited (or blamed for) the rise of capitalism, democratic government, and the spread of rebellion.