Humanism in sixteenth-century Salamanca has been assessed in strikingly contrasting ways. From one point of view, the careers of academics like Antonio de Nebrija seem to indicate a "humanist revolution" in Spain's leading university. From a more pessimistic perspective, intellectual life appears to have been irreparably stifled by church and crown. This investigation seeks a plausible alternative to these conventional narratives, without resorting to the simplistic expedient of blaming Counter-Reformation repression for the decline of Renaissance values.
Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester 1531-55, is familiar as "Wily Winchester," the villain of Foxe's Actes and Monuments. Foxe, however, was building on a long evangelical tradition which cast Gardiner as Antichrist's chief agent in England. This reputation was grounded less on Gardiner's own conduct than on the reformers' need for a scapegoat to explain the failure of their early hopes and to exonerate Henry VIII.
This article demonstrates how Cranach the Elder's Schneeberg Altarpiece of 1539, the first evangelical retable, instructs viewers in Lutheran theology and actively perpetuates evangelical public devotional practice. The strategies of the retable s iconography, which derive from Luther's sermons and other writings, explicate Luther's notion of justification by grace through faith. This model of salvation creates a new foundation for the pictorial interpretation of traditional subjects.
Thomas Lodge is atypical among early modern English writers concerned with Jewish religious and historical texts. Whereas it was common for English theologians to use Jewish scholarship in support of their Protestant arguments, Lodge's 1602 translation ofThe Famous and Memorable Workes ofjosephus offers English readers the works of Josephus as a defense of Catholic understandings of Christian history and theology.
Fifteenth-century Italian humanists constructed elaborate genealogies of brides and grooms in Latin wedding orations. These family histories not only demonstrate the creative ways in which humanists praised elites by referring to classical and mythic pasts, but also the surprising extent to which humanists integrated and emphasized pagan and barbaric origins. This article focuses on two orations.
Quoting Rom. 10:17, "Faith commeth by hearing," English reformers stressed the aural in worship and argued that noise in church disturbs not only liturgy and sermon but also the salvation of souls. Visitation articles and ecclesiastical canons regulated the sounds of lay behavior; religious polemic describes liturgical practices as "noisy" to brand them as misguided at best and devilish at worst. William Bradshaw, Peter Smart, John Field, and Thomas Wilcox use noise to condemn "popish" behavior, and Richard Hooker and George Herbert discuss how lay behavior affects hearing the word.
Through continuous and successful cooperation with a charitable foundation-the Sapienza-the commune of Pistoia provided students from diverse social backgrounds with qualitatively superior schooling in the preuniversity levels throughout the sixteenth century and beyond. As a result, Pistoia had the largest number of graduates from the Studio Pisano, the flagship of the university system in Tuscany, surpassing by far all other communes, including the metropolitan center of Florence.