Scholars have wondered why Rabelais dedicated his Third Book (1546) to Marguerite de Navarre, since the book is filled with ridicule of women. In attempting to discover why Rabelais might have done this, the following essay suggests that he and Marguerite shared an interest in marriage, and in particular, they both opposed clandestine marriage, then under discussion by the Council ofTrent.
Much work has been accomplished in recent years on the relationship between the English and continental reformations, but research is focused primarily on the impact of Martin Bucer and Peter Martyr Vermigli on English theologians and university students during the reign of Edward VI. Comparatively little has been written about Heinrich Bullinger, whose writings, translated into English more frequently than Bucer's or Vermigli's, reached a wider English audience.
Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker (1504-75) defended priestly matrimony throughout his career. His life, library, and letters provide counterevidence to Eric Carlson's argument that the clergy failed to receive marriage enthusiastically and were themselves responsible for its slow acceptance in England.
Clerical marriage during the time of the Reformation raised issues of theology for the reformers, but for the Catholics it flagged issues of morality in its verdict that theology was simply being used in the service of immorality. This is best underscored in the matrimonial case involving Martin Luther and Katherine von Bora. Luther's writings on the subject of marriage had to be applied to his own life. Protestants defended Luther, while Catholic polemicists, especially Thomas More, attacked the matter of clerical marriage relentlessly.
This article examines building and property disputes before the Six-Man Councils of the Old and New Cities of Prague from 1547 to 1611. On one level, the disputes pro vide rich descriptive information about Renaissance architectural innovations and everyday interaction in this bilingual and multiconfessional city that was undergoing a transformation into a Habsburg residence.
Sixteenth-century Protestant and Catholic martyrologists use joyfulness, wit, and gallows humor to reveal what is in a martyr's conscience, what motivates martyrs to endure suffering. Despite prominently displaying More s famous sense of humor, how ever, the Elizabethan play called The Book of Sir Thomas More maintains a steadfast silence about the reasons More suffered execution. Failing to link More s famous final jests to a declaration of his conscience, the play instead uses joyfulness to hide Mores beliefs and thus to conceal the religiously divisive reasons for his death.
Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt's Von Abtuhung der Bilder und Das Keyn Bedtler unther den Christen seyn sollen were printed as a single tract on January 27,1522, and headed by a single, dedicatory preface. A rhetorical analysis of both essays shows aspects of Karlstadt's legalistic hermeneutic, with its heavy reliance on the Old Testament, and a notion of "offense" rooted in material-spiritual circumstances that offend God and, consequently, Karlstadt himself.
This study draws on theological and demonological works that discuss demons' reaction to sodomy, and concentrates on Gianfrancesco Pico's 1523 dialogue Strix. While the medieval theological view stressed the demons' abhorrence of sodomy and refrainment from engaging in sodomitical relations, fifteenth-century demonologists already found it difficult to reconcile such a view with the newly developed theory of diabolic witchcraft. During the sixteenth century, the notion of the demons' dis gust at sodomy was radically transformed.