Mary, Queen of Scots promised to make a parliamentary religious settlement when she returned, as a Catholic, to her newly Protestant realm of Scotland in 1561. She then delayed summoning a parliament until 1563, and the summons, when it came, was engineered by her leading Protestant adviser, the earl of Moray. However, when parliament assembled, Mary outmaneuvered Moray with a series of well-timed concessions, and successfully avoided a Protestant settlement. The whole issue was a crucial one for Mary’s personal reign, and it illustrates her skill in rallying broad support.
Sixteenth century Lutheran funeral sermons were intended for both clerical and popular audiences and sought to instruct and console the grieving. Unlike the Lutherans, the Reformed rejected most funeral ceremonial, including the preaching of funeral sermons. The collection of funeral sermons by the Reformed pastor Johann Brandmüller is unique in applying the Reformed style of published sermons, intended primarily as a theological resource for pastors, to a distinctively Lutheran genre.
The chambers of rhetoric in the Low Countries were amateur guilds or confraternities of laymen especially devoted to the composition of vernacular poetry and drama. The members were trained to perform not only in the semiprivate sphere of their chambers, but also in the public sphere, often in the context of civic festivals. This article asks if women had access to this formal literary culture that flourished in the urban middle class milieu of the Low Countries during the early modern period.
In the modern American humanities classroom (whether it is literature, political science, or history) faculty may find it difficult to construct a framework for the analysis of women’s pan-historical place in power and in medieval and early modern British history, literature, and popular culture. Faculty first confront the core questions (Why should American students care? How do I make this subject interesting to them?) but then immediately face practical but formidable pedagogical questions.
The genesis for this set of essays originated almost sixteen years ago, when the Book Review Office of the Sixteenth Century Journal moved to Roanoke College and began receiving diverse books of Shakespearean scholarship for the purpose of placing, editing, and publishing book reviews of those books. We, the Book Review Editors, have often joked that it would be possible to publish an entire edition of book reviews devoted solely to Shakespeare.
This article examines the early modern reception history of a Hebrew epitome of Josephus Flavius’s Antiquities originally composed by the Jewish historian and philosopher Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo. Circulating in Latin, English, and German, Protestant printers and editors in particular regarded this work as a concise and accessible alternative to the Antiquities.
The purpose of this article is to reconsider the combat efficiency and motivation of the Spanish infantry during the Italian Wars in light of the unfounded and misguided conclusions of both sixteenth-century and present-day perceptions of professional and mercenary soldiers. The humanistic admiration of the citizen-soldier embedded a fundamental fear and suspicion of the supposedly untrustworthy and greedy professional soldier that only began to dissipate during the last few decades. Yet, combat efficiency and initial motivation to serve in early modern armies seem to be mangled together.
This article examines questions of retributive justice and conflict resolution in early modern England. In particular, it focuses on Protestant demands for anti-Catholic vengeance in the aftermath of the Marian persecution. Following the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558, some godly critics called for the execution of the Marian leadership, whom they blamed for the deaths of the Protestant martyrs.