In the years up to 1623, Papirio Bartoli, Cardinal Federico Borromeo’s Milanese agent in Rome, drew up a project for an intervention on St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican. The Lombard’s main proposal was the construction of an enormous boat-shaped choir at the crossing of the church, but the dilettante also suggested the construction of two new aisles, a new façade, and a porticoed piazza in front of it. This essay analyzes the iconographic components, the liturgical sources, and the models of Bartoli’s project.
Sixteenth century Lutheran funeral sermons were intended for both clerical and popular audiences and sought to instruct and console the grieving. Unlike the Lutherans, the Reformed rejected most funeral ceremonial, including the preaching of funeral sermons. The collection of funeral sermons by the Reformed pastor Johann Brandmüller is unique in applying the Reformed style of published sermons, intended primarily as a theological resource for pastors, to a distinctively Lutheran genre.
In the modern American humanities classroom (whether it is literature, political science, or history) faculty may find it difficult to construct a framework for the analysis of women’s pan-historical place in power and in medieval and early modern British history, literature, and popular culture. Faculty first confront the core questions (Why should American students care? How do I make this subject interesting to them?) but then immediately face practical but formidable pedagogical questions.
The genesis for this set of essays originated almost sixteen years ago, when the Book Review Office of the Sixteenth Century Journal moved to Roanoke College and began receiving diverse books of Shakespearean scholarship for the purpose of placing, editing, and publishing book reviews of those books. We, the Book Review Editors, have often joked that it would be possible to publish an entire edition of book reviews devoted solely to Shakespeare.
This article examines the early modern reception history of a Hebrew epitome of Josephus Flavius’s Antiquities originally composed by the Jewish historian and philosopher Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo. Circulating in Latin, English, and German, Protestant printers and editors in particular regarded this work as a concise and accessible alternative to the Antiquities.
The purpose of this article is to reconsider the combat efficiency and motivation of the Spanish infantry during the Italian Wars in light of the unfounded and misguided conclusions of both sixteenth-century and present-day perceptions of professional and mercenary soldiers. The humanistic admiration of the citizen-soldier embedded a fundamental fear and suspicion of the supposedly untrustworthy and greedy professional soldier that only began to dissipate during the last few decades. Yet, combat efficiency and initial motivation to serve in early modern armies seem to be mangled together.
This article examines questions of retributive justice and conflict resolution in early modern England. In particular, it focuses on Protestant demands for anti-Catholic vengeance in the aftermath of the Marian persecution. Following the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558, some godly critics called for the execution of the Marian leadership, whom they blamed for the deaths of the Protestant martyrs.