This article explores the Aragonese Inquisition and its prosecution of homosexual sodomy in terms of the types of men tried and the attitudes of both local denouncers and inquisitorial magistrates, given the important separation of the judicial process into denunciation and trial. The diverging views regarding sexuality and deviance between Aragonese peoples and the judges manning the tribunals of Barcelona, Valencia, and Zaragoza meant that both groups differently assessed the types of people in need of control.
Anthonius Margaritha, the son of a rabbi, was a German Jew who converted to Christianity in 1522. He is best remembered for his Der gantz Jüdisch Glaub (1530), in which he described many Jewish customs, gave his German translation of the Hebrew prayer book, and presented a “refutation” of Judaism. The accuracy of his ethnographic data is crucial to using Der gantz Jüdisch glaub in scholarly discussion. This essay tests Margaritha’s assertions about German-Jewish physicians and about the anti- Christian polemic in the aleinu prayer against external Jewish and Christian sources.
Friedrich Förner, a principal architect of the Catholic Reformation in Bamberg, is especially remembered for his 1626 treatise on witchcraft, Panoplia Armaturae Dei. An examination of the full range Förner’s writings reveals a common logic that underlay his approach to the problems of witch-hunting and Catholic reform. From a historical perspective, the rise of witchcraft and Calvinism together represented the final stage in the devil’s assault on Christianity.
The day before his death (18 April 1560) Philip Melanchthon designated in his will that his Responsiones ad articulos Bavaricae inquisitionis, composed a year earlier, should be his final confession of faith.
This article analyzes the role of medical discourse in assessing the veracity of visionary experience in Golden Age Spain. Focusing on the Inquisition’s prosecution of suspected impostors, it describes the ways in which medicine could function as a tool of ecclesiastical discipline. The central argument is that by emphasizing the role of physiological factors in the genesis of many seemingly miraculous phenomena, church authorities used medicine as a way of controlling access to the supernatural realm in what amounted to a medical fideism.
Mary, Queen of Scots promised to make a parliamentary religious settlement when she returned, as a Catholic, to her newly Protestant realm of Scotland in 1561. She then delayed summoning a parliament until 1563, and the summons, when it came, was engineered by her leading Protestant adviser, the earl of Moray. However, when parliament assembled, Mary outmaneuvered Moray with a series of well-timed concessions, and successfully avoided a Protestant settlement. The whole issue was a crucial one for Mary’s personal reign, and it illustrates her skill in rallying broad support.
Sixteenth century Lutheran funeral sermons were intended for both clerical and popular audiences and sought to instruct and console the grieving. Unlike the Lutherans, the Reformed rejected most funeral ceremonial, including the preaching of funeral sermons. The collection of funeral sermons by the Reformed pastor Johann Brandmüller is unique in applying the Reformed style of published sermons, intended primarily as a theological resource for pastors, to a distinctively Lutheran genre.
The chambers of rhetoric in the Low Countries were amateur guilds or confraternities of laymen especially devoted to the composition of vernacular poetry and drama. The members were trained to perform not only in the semiprivate sphere of their chambers, but also in the public sphere, often in the context of civic festivals. This article asks if women had access to this formal literary culture that flourished in the urban middle class milieu of the Low Countries during the early modern period.