The author’s research aims to present a comprehensive and contextualizing history of cryptography based on the rich source material of early modern Hungary.Cryptography will be contextualized in a wide range of social strata, integrated into the larger intellectual milieu of secrecy.This article surveys the most important source types of research in the field of diplomacy, private correspondence, espionage, student handbooks, and personal diaries.
This article discusses the centrality of Vergilianism in the neo-Latin literature of High Renaissance Rome. Poets and intellectuals in Rome appropriated the themes, language, and episodes of Vergil’s texts to articulate a vision for papal Rome in the early sixteenth century. The works of the Roman humanist Egidio Gallo, situated within the framework of the texts of more notable poets associated with early cinquecento Rome, provide a clear example of this phenomenon.
After a long debate the Council of Trent decided against the validity of marriages contracted informally, without a public ceremony.Marriages without parental consent, however, remained valid. These decisions are frequently described as a pragmatic compromise, where one controversial reform was rejected in favor of another, equally controversial. Yet there was, as this article will show, a significant difference in how the delegates addressed the questions of publicity and parental consent.
This article reconsiders Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Triton Fountain and Fountain of the Bees, both commissioned by Pope Urban VIII Barberini. Modern scholarship, citing a Renaissance emblem in which Triton represents “immortality acquired by literary study,” has asserted that the Triton Fountain is a statement on the literary achievements of Urban, who was a poet of some note. In classical literature, however, Triton often appears as a combatant in divinely sanctioned warfare.
News from the Atlantic world was a key ingredient in early printed European newspapers. This article investigates the rhythm of Atlantic reporting in two weekly corantos from the Low Countries, one produced in Amsterdam, the other in Antwerp. It studies the serial production, dissemination, and reception of news from the “Western front” in the year 1630, when both the Dutch West India Company and the Habsburg monarchy experienced a blend of victories and disappointments. Partiality and different conceptions of credibility determined how events were covered on opposite sides of the border.
This article, using information from over one thosand marriage contracts from mid-sixteenth-century Nîmes, examines marriage choice in early modern France. It concludes that among the poorer half of the population, children largely chose their own spouses. Legal requirements for consent were frequently ignored, and parents were frequently dead. Many poor young people immigrated to Nîmes from the countryside, and met their spouses in town.