Quoting Rom. 10:17, "Faith commeth by hearing," English reformers stressed the aural in worship and argued that noise in church disturbs not only liturgy and sermon but also the salvation of souls. Visitation articles and ecclesiastical canons regulated the sounds of lay behavior; religious polemic describes liturgical practices as "noisy" to brand them as misguided at best and devilish at worst. William Bradshaw, Peter Smart, John Field, and Thomas Wilcox use noise to condemn "popish" behavior, and Richard Hooker and George Herbert discuss how lay behavior affects hearing the word.
Through continuous and successful cooperation with a charitable foundation-the Sapienza-the commune of Pistoia provided students from diverse social backgrounds with qualitatively superior schooling in the preuniversity levels throughout the sixteenth century and beyond. As a result, Pistoia had the largest number of graduates from the Studio Pisano, the flagship of the university system in Tuscany, surpassing by far all other communes, including the metropolitan center of Florence.
Henri Estienne (also Henricus Stephanus, called le Grand) is one of the most important printers, editors, dictionary writers, philologists, and religious controversialists of the sixteenth century. This essay argues that allegations of unmanliness and sodomy against (Catholic) Italians-in short, forms of "xenohomophobia" inform not only his writings that participate in the post-Reformational controversies of his day, but they enter deeply also into his philological speculations and observations. Estienne's gendered speculations and prejudices were adapted to use in England.
What was Giordano Bruno thinking when he unleashed a flurry of hearts, moons, stars, ivy leaves, and flowers into nearly seventy-five geometric diagrams in two of his most mathematical treatises, the Articuli centum et sexaginta adversus huius tempestatis mathematicos atque philosophos and De triplici m?nimo et mensura? Not only is this kind of detailed ornamentation difficult to accomplish on a woodblock; it is most unusual for a printed work of geometry in any period of European history. The restless Bruno must have had a good reason to engage in such a labor-intensive project.
Many scholars have stressed the favor shown to the bastard sons of noblemen, particularly in the "golden age of noble bastards" in the fifteenth century This article examines the position of noble bastards in Southwest Germany, using the Zimmerische Chronik (written in the 1560s) and regional studies of counts and barons in Swabia and Franconia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
This article discusses the introduction of Tridentine reform in Tuscan convents, in particular the implementation of enclosure and the subsequent reactions of nuns. In Tuscany, Tridentine laws coexisted with disciplinary measures sponsored by the church and the state concerning the government of convents. Enclosure laws were enforced through negotiations within local communities involving both ecclesiastical and state authorities and the nuns, who expressed their discontent and sometimes refused to live under lock and key.
This article concerns attitudes to melancholia and melancholic painters in the literature of the arts from sixteenth-century Italy, and focuses primarily on the writings of Giorgio Vasari, with some attention also to texts by Pino, Dolce, Lomazzo, and others. Remarks made by these authors are analyzed in relation to other sources of primary evidence, ranging from a carnival song to a treatise by Marsilio Ficino on "black bile," the humor supposed to cause melancholia.
Two anonymous and little known works of art from sixteenth-century France, a poem of 1545, "Les Obseques d'Amour," and a somewhat later painting now in the Louvre, Les Fun?railles de l'amour, have in common their portrayal of the funeral of Cupid, the god of love, a theme otherwise unknown at the time and one which has resisted modern attempts to explain its meaning. This article proposes that in both cases Cupid's burial is a metaphor for the rejection of carnal love by a group of Parisian women then charged with sexual immorality and that the painting is derived from the poem.
Historians agree that early modern Spaniards' sexual behavior deviated significantly from norms set forth in royal and canon law. The question of how Spaniards resolved the tensions between their sexual norms as encoded in law and their nonnormative sexual behaviors has yet to be addressed. This essay argues that seventeenth-century Spaniards mitigated such tension by using laws and legal systems to transform deviant behavior into acceptable behavior when it was culturally expedient.
The Androgyne takes its name from the myth in Plato's Symposium. Gen. 2, where man and wife are to be one flesh, gives us the marriage androgyne. From Gen. 1, in which Adam is male and female, we have another sort of androgyne, this one purely of the spirit. Drawing on these sources, Renaissance writers made use of the androgyne as a figure of desire (both heterosexual and homosexual), of marital fidelity and marital infidelity, and of the soul seeking union with the divine.