Humanism in sixteenth-century Salamanca has been assessed in strikingly contrasting ways. From one point of view, the careers of academics like Antonio de Nebrija seem to indicate a "humanist revolution" in Spain's leading university. From a more pessimistic perspective, intellectual life appears to have been irreparably stifled by church and crown. This investigation seeks a plausible alternative to these conventional narratives, without resorting to the simplistic expedient of blaming Counter-Reformation repression for the decline of Renaissance values.
Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester 1531-55, is familiar as "Wily Winchester," the villain of Foxe's Actes and Monuments. Foxe, however, was building on a long evangelical tradition which cast Gardiner as Antichrist's chief agent in England. This reputation was grounded less on Gardiner's own conduct than on the reformers' need for a scapegoat to explain the failure of their early hopes and to exonerate Henry VIII.
This article demonstrates how Cranach the Elder's Schneeberg Altarpiece of 1539, the first evangelical retable, instructs viewers in Lutheran theology and actively perpetuates evangelical public devotional practice. The strategies of the retable s iconography, which derive from Luther's sermons and other writings, explicate Luther's notion of justification by grace through faith. This model of salvation creates a new foundation for the pictorial interpretation of traditional subjects.
Thomas Lodge is atypical among early modern English writers concerned with Jewish religious and historical texts. Whereas it was common for English theologians to use Jewish scholarship in support of their Protestant arguments, Lodge's 1602 translation ofThe Famous and Memorable Workes ofjosephus offers English readers the works of Josephus as a defense of Catholic understandings of Christian history and theology.