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Journal > Volumes > 52 (2021) > 2 (Summer)
2 (Summer)
NOTE: Book reviews will be included in issue download
Christian Art in Early Modern India

It has long been acknowledged that the success of the Jesuit mission in Goa, India, was due in part to its strategic use of art and architecture to promote the ideals of the order and to garner local support. This article instead focuses on art produced in the modern-day state of Kerala, where the advent of a material culture of Christianity was complicated by a preexisting community of ...

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Terroir of Poetry and the Desire for Change

Barclay’s Eclogues draw on early modern readings of the meaning of food in Virgil to express dissatisfaction with the status quo and the poetry it makes possible and readiness to find a new, fairer way of life.

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Climbing the Ladder

Bosch’s paintings are among the best known and most influential images of hell in the history of art. Yet few have noticed an unexpected and unique motif that Bosch repeatedly includes amid the demons, sinners, and burning buildings included within his many depictions of hell: ladders. In the spiritual literature and art of Bosch’s day, the ladder was primarily associated with the concept of...

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Implementing Royal Policy

This paper use qualitative and quantitative analysis to assess how the royal bureaucracy implemented Charles V’s discount policy to monasteries in the ecclesiastical subsidy. The king wanted to make sure that only the most burdened monastic communities, particularly those of poor nuns, received discounts. Consequently, he charged the Council of the Cruzada with this administrative task. The...

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Reformation Studies in China

This paper analyzes the Reformation studies in China contextualized within the academic framework of world history as it developed from 1949 to the present, including the diachronic changes that scholarship has experienced, its essential characteristics, current debates, and ongoing trends. Over the last seventy years, steady development and some unique characteristics of Chinese academic...

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