This article discusses the centrality of Vergilianism in the neo-Latin literature of High Renaissance Rome. Poets and intellectuals in Rome appropriated the themes, language, and episodes of Vergil’s texts to articulate a vision for papal Rome in the early sixteenth century. The works of the Roman humanist Egidio Gallo, situated within the framework of the texts of more notable poets associated with early cinquecento Rome, provide a clear example of this phenomenon. The pervasiveness of Vergilianism illustrates that the Roman humanists were attempting to employ the past as a basis for a transformation of the present that is not as unrealistic as it may first appear. Further, these texts provide a glimpse of the overarching impact of Vergil in the Italian Renaissance on a local level.