Francisco de Zurbar.n’s Crucifixion with a Painter (ca. 1650–55, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid) illustrates the devotional aspects of his religious imagery and suggests that artistic production is the result of profound visionary experiences with the artist ultimately acting as a mediator between the divine and the viewer. This article explores the complex intersection of artistic identity and stature and religious devotion and naturalism in evaluating the originality of Zurbar.n’s theme. This work’s subject matter also raises essential questions about the relative merits of painting and sculpture that shape one of the core arguments of the paragone in early modern Spain. In addition to the art literature of the Spanish Golden Age, this essay also considers the spiritual texts of the period to establish a theoretical framework for Zurbar.n’s art.